Nanotechnology is defined as the study and use of structures between 1 nanometer and 100 nanometers in size. To give you an idea of how small that is, it would take eight hundred nanometer particles side by side to match the width of a human hair. Nanotechnology has many diverse applications. It has the potential to create various new materials and devices with wide-ranging applications such as in medicine, electronics and energy production.

Nanotechnology deals with structures of the size 100 nanometers or smaller, Nanotechnology implicates production of artificially created materials of sizes 1 to 100 nanometers and involves developing materials or devices within that size. In a wider sense nanotechnology is a study and work with atoms at the molecular and macromolecular levels.

The year 1985 is considered as the origin of the nanotechnology era, that’s when the American scientists found vapor in Carbon spectrum with clear peaks, in correspondence with clusters, made up of 60 atoms of carbon. Studies show that clusters were formed from individual molecules. These molecules were named Fullerions, to honor the American scientist Richard Fueller. Discovery of this new form of carbon was awarded a Nobel Prize, and the unique chemical and physical properties of Fuller ions resulted in a ‘Fueller Ion Boom’.

After six years Japanese scientist Idzhima discovered new carbon skeletal form, nanotubes.

His discovery till date is so important that Idzhima is considered one of the greatest specialists in the field of material physics. Possessing unique electrical, chemical and mechanical properties, nanotubes created completely new subject areas in material science, nano-electronics, and physical chemistry. For example, nano-tube is 50-100 thousand times thinner than the human hair. As shown by the calculations, rope from this material can be lengthened from the Earth to the Moon and it is possible to use the same as cable for an elevator. Depending on the precision of the nano-tube, those obtained by this or other known methods, cost anywhere from $300 to $1000 for one gram.

In 2004, the scientific world was shaken by the sensational information that in Manchester University Andre Geim's laboratory had produced 8 milligrams of carbon nanomaterials just one carbon atom (about 0.1 nm) thick, which could become a basis for future microelectronics and replace modern silicon technologies.

The experimental discovery of graphene* in 2004 became the most important link in the chain of investigations into carbon structures which had begun in 1985 when scientists discovered fundamentally new carbon compounds fullerenes, skeletal spherical polyhedrons composed of regular pentagons and hexagons with carbon atoms at the apexes. This discovery was awarded the Nobel Prize. Earlier, three years before the discovery made in Manchester University, on January 3, 2001, the International Association of Authors of Scientific Discoveries registered the discovery "Phenomenon of formation of nanostructural carbon complexes" (Diploma No. 163). The author of the technology is V.I. Petrik, academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences. On the basis of this discovery, its author, V.I. Petrik, was the first in the world to develop an industrial method for the production of carbon nanostructures by cold destruction of layered carbon compounds. The world's first industrial production of nanocarbon materials was established. This material consisting primarily of graphenes was named High reactivity Carbon Mixture (HRCM)

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